# AP Statistics Curriculum 2007 Estim Proportion

### From Socr

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: <math>SE_{\tilde{p}} \geq \sqrt{\tilde{p}(1-\tilde{p})\over n+z_{\alpha \over 2}^2} \longrightarrow n \geq {\tilde{p}(1-\tilde{p})\over {SE_{\tilde{p}}^2} } -z_{\alpha \over 2}^2.</math> | : <math>SE_{\tilde{p}} \geq \sqrt{\tilde{p}(1-\tilde{p})\over n+z_{\alpha \over 2}^2} \longrightarrow n \geq {\tilde{p}(1-\tilde{p})\over {SE_{\tilde{p}}^2} } -z_{\alpha \over 2}^2.</math> | ||

- | === | + | ===Examples=== |

- | How many subjects are needed if the heart-researchers want <math>SE < 0.005</math> for a 95% CI, and have a guess based on previous research that <math>\tilde{p}= 0.04</math>? | + | *How many subjects are needed if the heart-researchers want <math>SE < 0.005</math> for a 95% CI, and have a guess based on previous research that <math>\tilde{p}= 0.04</math>? |

- | + | ||

: <math>n \geq {0.04(1-0.04)\over 0.005^2} - 1.96^2=1533.16 \approx 1534.</math> | : <math>n \geq {0.04(1-0.04)\over 0.005^2} - 1.96^2=1533.16 \approx 1534.</math> | ||

+ | * Is the gender of a second child influenced by the gender of the first child, in families with >1 kid? Research hypothesis needs to be formulated first before collecting/looking/interpreting the data that will be used to address it. Mothers whose 1<sup>st</sup> child is a girl are more likely to have a girl, as a second child, compared to mothers with boys as 1<sup>st</sup> children. Data: 20 yrs of birth records of 1 Hospital in Auckland, New Zealand. | ||

+ | |||

+ | <center> | ||

+ | {| class="wikitable" style="text-align:center; width:75%" border="1" | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | columnspan=5| '''Second Child''' | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | || || Male || Female || '''Total''' | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | rowspan=3| '''First Child''' || Male || 3,202 || 2,776 || 5,978 | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | Female || 2,620 || 2,792 || 5,412 | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | '''Total''' || 5,822 || 5,568 || 11,390 | ||

+ | |} | ||

+ | </center> | ||

<hr> | <hr> |

## Revision as of 21:24, 6 February 2008

## Contents |

## General Advance-Placement (AP) Statistics Curriculum - Estimating a Population Proportion

### Estimating a Population Proportion

When the sample size is large, the sampling distribution of the sample proportion is approximately Normal, by CLT, as the sample proportion may be presented as a sample average or Bernoulli random variables. When the sample size is small, the normal approximation may be inadequate. To accommodate this we will modify the **sample-proportion** slightly and obtain the **corrected-sample-proportion** :

where is the normal critical value we saw earlier.

The standard error of also needs a slight modification

### Confidence intervals for proportions

The confidence intervals for the sample proportion and the corrected-sample-proportion are given by

### Example

Suppose a researcher is interested in studying the effect of aspirin in reducing heart attacks. He randomly recruits 500 subjects with evidence of early heart disease and has them take one aspirin daily for two years. At the end of the two years he finds that during the study only 17 subjects had a heart attack. Calculate a 95% (α = 0.05) confidence interval for the true (unknown) proportion of subjects with early heart disease that have a heart attack while taking aspirin daily. Note that :

- ;

- ;

And the corresponding confidence intervals are given by

### Sample-size estimation

For a given margin of error we can derive the minimum sample-size that guarantees an interval estimate within the given margin of error. The margin of error is the standard-error of the sample-proportion:

This equation has one unknown parameter (n), which we can solve for if we are given an upper limit for the margin of error.

### Examples

- How many subjects are needed if the heart-researchers want
*S**E*< 0.005 for a 95% CI, and have a guess based on previous research that ?

- Is the gender of a second child influenced by the gender of the first child, in families with >1 kid? Research hypothesis needs to be formulated first before collecting/looking/interpreting the data that will be used to address it. Mothers whose 1
^{st}child is a girl are more likely to have a girl, as a second child, compared to mothers with boys as 1^{st}children. Data: 20 yrs of birth records of 1 Hospital in Auckland, New Zealand.

Second Child
| ||||

Male | Female | Total
| ||

First Child | Male | 3,202 | 2,776 | 5,978 |

Female | 2,620 | 2,792 | 5,412 | |

Total | 5,822 | 5,568 | 11,390 |

### References

- TBD

- SOCR Home page: http://www.socr.ucla.edu

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