# AP Statistics Curriculum 2007 IntroTools

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For example, if we measure the weight and height of students and want to study gender, age or race differences or association between weight and height, we need to make sure our sample size is large enough, these weight and height measurements are random (i.e., we do not have repeated measurements of the same student or twin-measurements) and that the students we can measure are a representative sample of the population that we are making inference about (e.g., 8<sup>th</sup>-grade students). | For example, if we measure the weight and height of students and want to study gender, age or race differences or association between weight and height, we need to make sure our sample size is large enough, these weight and height measurements are random (i.e., we do not have repeated measurements of the same student or twin-measurements) and that the students we can measure are a representative sample of the population that we are making inference about (e.g., 8<sup>th</sup>-grade students). | ||

- | In this example, suppose we record the following | + | In this example, suppose we record the following 6 pairs of {weight (kg), height (cm)}: |

+ | {| align="center" border="1" | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | Student Index | ||

+ | | 1 | ||

+ | | 2 | ||

+ | | 3 | ||

+ | | 4 | ||

+ | | 5 | ||

+ | | 6 | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | Weight | ||

+ | | 60 | ||

+ | | 75 | ||

+ | | 58 | ||

+ | | 67 | ||

+ | | 56 | ||

+ | | 80 | ||

+ | |- | ||

+ | | Height | ||

+ | | 167 | ||

+ | | 175 | ||

+ | | 152 | ||

+ | | 172 | ||

+ | | 166 | ||

+ | | 175 | ||

+ | |} | ||

+ | We can easily compute the average weight and height using the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sample_mean sample mean-formula]. We can also compute these averages using the [ SOCR Charts], or any other statistical package | ||

+ | |||

===Computational Resources: Internet-based SOCR Tools=== | ===Computational Resources: Internet-based SOCR Tools=== |

## Revision as of 22:47, 19 June 2007

## Contents |

## General Advance-Placement (AP) Statistics Curriculum - Statistics with Tools

### Statistics with Tools (Calculators and Computers)

A critical component in any data analysis or process understanding protocol is that one needs to develop a model that has a compact analytical representation (e.g., formulas, symbolic equations, etc.) The model is used to study the process theoretically. Emperical validation of the model is carried by pluggin in data and actually testing the model. This validation stop may be done manually by computing the model prediction or model inference from recorded measurements. This typically may be done by hand only for small number of observations (<10). In practice, most of the time, we use or write algorithms and computer programs that automate these calculations for better efficiency, accuracy and consistency in applying the model to larger datasets.

There are a number of statistical software tools (programs) that one can employ for data analysis and statistical processing. Some of these are: SAS, SYSTAT, SPSS, R, SOCR.

### Approach & Model Validation

Before any statistical analysis tool is employed to analyze a dataset, one needs to carefully review the prerequisites and assumptions that this model demands about the data and study design.

For example, if we measure the weight and height of students and want to study gender, age or race differences or association between weight and height, we need to make sure our sample size is large enough, these weight and height measurements are random (i.e., we do not have repeated measurements of the same student or twin-measurements) and that the students we can measure are a representative sample of the population that we are making inference about (e.g., 8^{th}-grade students).

In this example, suppose we record the following 6 pairs of {weight (kg), height (cm)}:

Student Index | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 |

Weight | 60 | 75 | 58 | 67 | 56 | 80 |

Height | 167 | 175 | 152 | 172 | 166 | 175 |

We can easily compute the average weight and height using the sample mean-formula. We can also compute these averages using the [ SOCR Charts], or any other statistical package

### Computational Resources: Internet-based SOCR Tools

- TBD

### Examples

Computer simulations and real observed data.

- TBD

### Hands-on activities

Step-by-step practice problems.

- TBD

### References

- TBD

- SOCR Home page: http://www.socr.ucla.edu

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